Peptide Synthesis Process and Its Application

admin : July 1, 2015 4:53 am : Blog

In simple terms, Peptide synthesis is the formation of peptide bond between two amino acids; where, a peptide refers to flexible chains of 30-50 amino acids. Peptide synthesis process has been around since over 100 years; however, synthesis including ‘Oxytocin’ and ‘Insulin’ came later. Over the years, the efficiency of synthesis chemistry improved rapidly and today, it has become a common approach in biological research centres. It is more commonly used of peptide in cosmetic products and drug development.

Its primary advantage is that, essential peptides found in biological specimens can now be made in a lab. Moreover, they can be optimized to produce desired biological responses by adding additional attributes to original peptides. It is often done by coupling carboxyl group of amino acid to the N-terminus of peptide chain (C-to-N synthesis). However, due to its complex nature, the coupling is controlled in strict steps of cyclic processes.

 Amino acids are added to the growing peptide chain, one at a time. They have numerous reactive groups; hence, must be carefully performed to avoid any side reaction, such as reduction of length and branching of peptide chain. Therefore, research centres have developed chemical groups that bind to the specific reactive blocks of amino acid and protect the functional group.

Individual amino acids are reacted with the protecting groups before synthesis Some protecting groups are removed from the added amino acid after coupling. This step is called a ‘Deprotection’. It facilitates new incoming amino acids to bind to the peptide chain. After completion, remaining protecting groups are removed from peptides

 Commonly used protecting groups:

N-terminal protecting groups:

  • They are relatively easy to remove in order to allow peptide bond formation; e.g. tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) and 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)
  • Boc’ requires a strong acid such as trifluoracetic acid (TFA) to be removed from the newly added amino acid. They need acidic conditions for deprotection
  • Whereas ‘Fmo’c is a base-labile protecting group and can be removed with a base – piperidine. They are commonly used in commercial products

 C-terminal protecting group:

  • Liquid-phase synthesis requires protection of the C-terminus
  • Solid-phase synthesis does not require protection because the solid support acts as the protecting group.

Amino acid side chains:

They are known as permanent protecting groups, because they can withstand multiple cycles of chemical treatment during the synthesis phase and are only removed after synthesis is complete.

Applications of synthetic peptides:

Invention of peptide synthesis encouraged Custom peptide synthesis services to development of numerous application areas such as:

  • Development of epitope specific antibodies, specifically used against pathogenic proteins
  • Study of protein functions i.e. to identify and characterize
  • Study of enzyme-substrate interactions in enzyme classes such as kinases and proteases. It is crucial in cell signalling.
  • They can resemble natural peptides; hence can be used as a part of treatment against major diseases.
  • They can be used as reagents in mass spectrometry based applications
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Role of Peptides and Their Synthesis in Cosmetics

admin : May 7, 2015 5:20 am : Blog, Uncategorized

Peptides are part of proteins formed by chains of amino acids that regulate life-sustaining activities by interacting with other cells and system. It has proved to be beneficial when applied topically on the skin, particularly for wound healing and skin repairing. These cosmetic peptides are hydrophilic; moreover, sensitive to heat and presence of other enzymes. Today, various kinds of peptides are used on cosmetic products to increase their efficacy; making them one of the essential ingredients in making personal skin care treatments and products. These peptides have shown good anti-inflammatory effect when transporting active ingredients into the living cell membrane.

Today, specific chains of peptides are being made in the laboratory. Simply adding fatty acid facilitates them to become soluble, stable and active; which is not attainable by peptides independently. Although, not easy to achieve, researchers and scientists strive to make it possible as it has significant potential of being a potent anti-aging skin-care ingredient.

Peptides like Human Histone H4 (acetyl K8), used in skin-care products; need extensive process to exert its benefits. It must meet a number of criteria i.e.

  • It must remain stable in their base formula
  • It must be paired with a carrier than are specific and can enhance their absorption by skin
  • Most importantly, it must be able to reach target cells without breaking

Although most peptides are less stable, they are still revered because of their high therapeutic value and for low toxicity. Therefore, it is difficult of find a good skin care product that doesn’t use peptide and actives. The only downside is the expense as it takes stringent process and sophisticated equipment in making peptides active and stable. Moreover, making synthetic peptides is also an exhaustive process. Today over 20 peptides are used for making anti-aging skin care treatments and many companies are still making peptides for research work and help find peptides with better efficacy.

Peptides are rather small, hence they can easily enter into the protective barriers of the skin and can get into deeper layers. However, their efficacy largely depends on good formulating skills. Peptide synthesis is one the process where artificial peptides are made for research work that helps improve its efficiency. It allows they to make it more stable and find better ways to deliver it to the skin as well as maintain their activity.

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Few Basic Facts About Custom Peptides Synthesis

admin : March 31, 2015 4:59 am : Blog

Custom peptides have numerous applications in fields of research and development, formulation studies besides the commercial usages. Peptide manufacturing companies offer these products in both solution and powder forms.

Custom peptides synthesis is performed to produce research grade or bulk API ploy-peptides. These peptides are modified during synthesis for specific diagnostic and therapeutic usages. There are two types of peptide synthesis processes such as liquid and solid phase synthesis. The first one is used for very short dipeptide synthesis while the latter makes a perfect choice for large scale productions.

A user can search and find desired peptides as per its specific needs. You can order a product of any amount beginning from meager milligram to massive in tons. The peptide synthesis companies give top priority in offering quality products that are biologically very active.

The custom type peptides have some applications as described below.

  • Biological effect measurements
  • Antibody production (Polyclonal and Monoclonal)
  • Receptor characterization
  • Protease assays
  • Receptor-ligand interactions
  • Epitome mapping
  • ELISA standards
  • Protein function-structure analysis

It is important to handle and store the custom type peptides in prescribed manner for accurate results. Such peptides are generally delivered as lyophilized Trichloroacetic salts with free amino and carbon molecules. Upon receipt, the product should be stored at -20°C. The temperature makes the peptides stable for several years.

If you are ordering soliloquized peptides try to use these immediately. The products are highly unstable in nature due to their lower concentration. If needed, remaining peptides in the solution should be re-lyophilized for longer storage or later usages.

While dealing with the peptides products, use gloves to avoid contamination of enzyme, bacteria, etc. As many peptides are sensitive to light, protected these from direct light.

To find pure and quality peptide synthesis, you can consider a company supporting state-of-the-art equipments and validated processes. Also qualified manpower and raw materials ensure the highest quality peptide synthesis that helps for an efficient and productive outcome.

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Plus Factors of GMP Peptides

admin : March 5, 2015 2:53 am : Blog, Uncategorized

Peptides refer to the polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. These are the short chains of amino acid monomers that forms covalent chemical bond with carboxyl group of one amino acid with another. It shows a variety of applications due to its high specificity, potency, and activity. One could find a number of peptides that are known by different names, but no other could better match the quality and performance of GMP Peptides. That is why, it drew a wider attention in research and cosmetic manufacturing industry.

What does GMP mean?

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) refers to the regulations published by the FDA. If a supplier produces the peptide under the guidelines of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP), they are indicated with a “GMP”. It examines the manufacturing standard of the companies producing drugs, medical devices. The companies need to follow some proactive steps to make sure that their products are safe, 100% pure, and effective. GMP quality approach enables companies to cut the instances of contamination, mix-ups, and errors to protect the consumer interest.

If you are a chemist and looking for the comprehensive peptides, then GMP Peptides is the preferred one. It plays a big role in a number of peptide synthesis and purification methods offering best possible solutions. Listed below are some of the notable features that you might find interesting.

  • GMP peptides have some special and advanced features that make it most suitable for use.
  • These peptides manufactured according to the FDA standards of good manufacturing practices.
  • These are commercially viable and environmentally friendly.
  • Are of the highest quality and laboratory tested.
  • These peptides have great crude purity.
  • These peptides could be synthesized in several forms, according to the specific customer requirements.
  • The GMP grade peptides are better worth and are available at reasonable prices.
  • It could be used for a longer period of time and the product lasts long.
  • State-of-art technologies used for large-scale production. And, day-by-day the products are enhancing in terms of quality.

These are best thing about a GMP graded peptide. You need to check all the specification before ordering it from an online store. There are many peptide synthesis companies that claim to offer the best peptides at cut prices. But, choose the one that could give you top-notch quality and world-class products without asking a huge amount to pay. For that you need to do a thorough research for ensuring a better outcome.

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Peptide Library Service: Storage & Handling Guidelines

admin : November 21, 2014 8:47 am : Blog, Uncategorized

Organic chemistry is vast and is also useful in the production of different peptides. Researches are going on for getting its prominence in fundamental physiological and biochemical functions of life. They have recently identified techniques for manufacturing and studying new applications for it.

Peptide Library Service is one such technique that could study the protein and its synthesis. It contains a great number of systematic combinations of amino acid and provides a powerful tool for drug design, protein-protein interactions, and other biochemical as well as pharmaceutical applications. It’s a challenging program and need certain precautions in handling and storing. Only proper peptide handling and solubilization can make a successful bioassay project.

Storage
Peptide solution’s shelf life is limited, especially the peptides containing C, M, N, Q and W. To prolong the storage life of the peptides in solution, keep it in a dry, cool and dark place. A sterile buffer with a pH of around 5-6 could be helpful. Store at 4 degree centigrade and a much colder place that is devoid of bright light. Avoid use of frost free freezers as repeated freeze-thaw cycles are deleterious to peptides. Whereas dry peptides can exist for days or weeks under normal room temperature. But the solid peptides shows much more contamination towards moisture. It is advised to warm the vial till room temperature before opening. After taking the desired quantity, re-seal the vial and then store in the cold storage.

Peptide Dissolution
There is no universal solvent for solubilizing all lyophilized peptides, whilst maintaining their integrity and compatibility in biological assays. Solubility has been a problem for many of the Peptide Library Service provider. So, it’s necessary to use a series of solvents for checking the dissolution of the peptide. You can adopt three best approaches to find the answer for the solubility problem of the peptide.

Approach 1: Dissolve the peptide in sterile distilled water or dilute acetic solution to give higher concentration. Later it will be diluted with appropriate buffer. Even sonication can be used to increase the dissolution.

Approach 2: If the peptide remains insoluble, check the proportion of hydrophobic, hydrophilic and overall charge on the neutral pH. If there is a net charge at neutral pH, then add dilute acetic acid or dilute aqueous ammonia or ammonium bicarbonate. Still the sample refuses to dissolve, then try alternative solvents for the same peptide.

Approach 3: If the peptide sequence has little or no charge at any pH, add acetonitrile, ethanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and chaotropic salts for better dissolution of most peptides. It depends upon the choice and on the compatibility of reagents with the peptide.

Once you receive your peptide from Peptide synthesis company, follow the above mentioned storage and dissolution approaches. As these are more susceptible to degradation by proteases of bacterial or microbial origin. You must prefer an ideal container for peptide manipulation. Use high quality polypropylene vials and specialist glass to lessen the storage problem. All these suggestions will surely help with long term storage of the peptide library.

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